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Oclobei, 5 196!
Robert J. Fleming, Jr., Governor-President
VV. P. Leber, Lieutenant Governor
Panama Canal Information Officer
| *~=^ |
Official Panama Canal Publication
Published monthly at Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Printed at the Printing Plant, Mount Hope, C.Z.
Robert D. Kerr and Julio E. Briceno
Eunice Richard, Tobi Bittel, and Tomas A. Cupas
On sale at all Panama Canal Service Centers, Retail Stores, and the Tivoli Guest House for 10 days after publication date at 5 cents each.
Subscriptions, $1 a year; mall and back copies, 10 cents each.
Postal money orders made payable to the Panama Canal Company should be mailed to Box M, Balboa Heights. C.Z.
Editorial Offices are located in the Administration Building. Balboa Heights, C.Z.
Une J^and J\eunlted
IT IS DOUBTFUL if any bridge in the world surpasses the
Thatcher Ferry Bridge as a uniting element between: Two parts
of a country, two continents, two peoples, and, soon, the two
parts of the world's greatest highway system.
Nothing, perhaps, could better express the historic setting for
the October 12 dedication and opening of the huge new bridge
linking the Americas.
The above words, from Elmer B. Stevens, bridge project
resident engineer, stress the true meaning of this new major world
The bridge also is viewed by Mr. Stevens as "a fitting and
proper sequel to the slogan coined during Canal construction
days, The Land Divided, the World United.' We can now say,
The Land Reunited' with the secure knowledge that this fact
further enhances world unity, and at a time when such unitv
is sorely needed."
News and picture highlights of bridge history may be found
on the following pages, along with some sidelights provided by
Mr. Stevens in an article on page 7.
Techniques, technology, and equipment have improved vastly
since the days of Canal construction. But the kev roles have ever
been those of the men and women of the Isthmus. Magnitude
of the jobs faced, and conquered, is evident in every picture and
every account of the bridge project.
The date of the ceremonies is a memorable one for more than
one reason. It was on an October 12 that Christopher Columbus
first saw American soil.
The Bridge by Night 3
Mr. Thatcher 3
Free, Permanent Transit 4
Dream of Years Realized 5
Tribute From an Ex-President 6
First-Hand Report, With Sidelights 7
Pictorial Progress Report 8-11
Dollars Flow to Panama 12
Good Will Ambassadors 14
Geologists Try Fins 16
School Calendar 18
Canal History 20
Promotions and Transfers 22
This issue of The Review will reach a far broader audience than
the average edition. Extra copies of The Review and of The
Review En Espanol have been ordered to meet expected demands.
Among these is a request from the Foreign Office of the
Republic of Panama for extra copies for distribution to embassies,
consulates, and schools.
ABOUT OUR FRONT COVER-The commemorative
medallion for the Thatcher Ferry Bridge dedication
October 12 is flanked by an aerial view of the bridge itself
showing dramatically the linking of the banks. The reverse
side of the medallion portrays a map of this part of the
hemisphere, with the Isthmus at its center, and dedication
date. Aluminum pocket pieces l 1 ^ inches in diameter,
miniatures of the medallion, have been ordered as
souvenirs, along with decals reproducing the face of
October 5, 1962
Dedicated - To Service
THE ONLY surviving member of the
Isthmian Canal Commission will be
present October 12 at the ceremonies to
be held to dedicate the impressive new
bridge which bears his name.
He is Maurice H. Thatcher, a man
who celebrated his 92d birthday in
August and whose enthusiasm and
vitality won for him the unofficial title
of the "First Governor of the Canal
Zone." He was, in fact, the youngest
member of a group of extraordinary
men which included Col. W. L. Sibert,
Joseph Bucklin Bishop, Adm. H. H.
Rousseau, Col. Harrv F. Hodges, Col.
David D. Gaillard,' Col. William C.
Gorgas, and Col. George W. Goethals.
Mr. Thatcher served as Chief of the
Department of Civil Administration
which controlled Canal Zone civil affairs
and included the representation of the
Isthmian Canal Commission in its rela-
tions with the Republic of Panama and
the foreign diplomatic missions. He held
this position from May 13, 1910, until
August 8, 1913.
His name has long been associated
with matters relating to the Isthmus of
Panama. On two occasions he has been
president of the Gorgas Institute and
was one of the founders of the "Panama
Society" of Washington. In addition, he
is closely connected with the Isthmian
Historical Society, which was organized
at his suggestion.
For five consecutive terms, from 1922
until 1933, Mr. Thatcher was elected to
the U.S. House of Representatives from
the district of Louisville, Ky. It was
during these years that he introduced
legislation which created the ferry serv-
ice across the Canal later known as
Thatcher Ferry, made possible construc-
tion of a road connecting the west ter-
minal of the ferry with the town of
Arraijan, and established the Gorgas
Maurice H. Thatcher.
Memorial Institute of Tropical and
Tireless in his efforts on behalf of the
(See p. 19)
The Panama Canal Review
And by Day
Free, Permanent Transit
THE $20 MILLION high level bridge
across the Panama Canal at Balboa, a
U.S. Treatv commitment, assures free,
permanent transit of vehicles and pedes-
trians from one bank of the Canal to
Such a bridge was one of the principal
stipulations of the Remon-Eisenhower
Treaty and Memorandum of Under-
standing signed between Panama and
the United States in 1955.
The US. Congress, in 1956. approved
an appropriation of S20 million for
the design and construction of the
permanent bridge across the Canal.
This bridge replaces the Thatcher
Ferry service, which had been used the
past 30 years as a means of communica-
tion between the east and west banks
of the Canal.
Construction started on December 23,
1958, with an official ceremony in which
former President of Panama Ernesto de
la Guardia, Jr.. and former Canal Zone
Governor \V. E. Potter participated.
Other Panamanian dignitaries present
included the Minister of Public Works,
Roberto Lopez Fabrega. Silver shovels
were used to turn the first shovelfuls of
earth at the base of Farfan Hill.
It was not until September 1959, that
actual work began. The midget dredge
Mandinga began excavation of a
channel parallel to the location of the
bridge piers, to facilitate access to the
The bridge was designed bv Sverd-
rup, Parcel & Associates of St. Louis,
Mo. Governor Potter named a construc-
tion advisory board whose members
were Ralph A. Tudor, structural engi-
neer; Dr. R. P. Davis, structural engi-
neer; F. C. Turner, chief engineer in
the office of public roads; E. B.
Burwell, Jr., geologist; and Aymar
Embury II, architect, all experts in their
The contract for construction of the
substructure was awarded in 1959 to
Fruin-Colnon International, S. A., and
LeBoeuf and Dougherty, Inc., a joint
venture from St. Louis, Mo. Some diffi-
culties were encountered by the sub-
structure contractor in satisfactorily
completing the two largest cofferdams
erected at the water pier sites.
In order to excavate to firm rock and
pour concrete footings "in the dry" for
the water piers, cofferdams of the open,
internally-braced single-wall tvpe were
used. All piers and abutments were
completed in November 1961.
Foundations of the bridge consist of
reinforced concrete abutments, with the
water piers resting on firm rock and the
land piers on clusters of cylindrical
reinforced concrete caissons which
extend down to firm rock.
The largest contract in connection
with the bridge, for the superstructure,
was awarded in February 1960, to John
F. Beaslev Construction Co. of Dallas.
Tex., on a bid of $9,199,000. The con-
tract included furnishing structural steel
manufactured in West Germany as a
joint venture by four firms.
The steel started to arrive on the
Isthmus in June and July of 1961. In
August, a crew of 75 specially trained
steel construction men arrived from the
United States. These men, skilled in the
work of erecting bridge spans, did the
actual work of joining 15,000 tons of
steel with bolted connections.
Fabrication of structural steel for the
bridge was completed in Germany in
January 1962, and by the end of that
month all fabricated steel, with the
exception of some minor parts, had been
shipped to the Isthmus.
The bridge is 5,425 feet long, with
the longest single span, directly over the
Canal channel, measuring 1,128 feet.
The highest portion of the bridge is
384 feet above the average level of the
Canal. The lowest portion of the struc-
ture is 201 feet above the Canal at high
The bridge has four traffic lanes and
a pedestrian walk, with three traffic-
lanes and a pedestrian walk on the
approaches. The roadway is of 7-inch
reinforced concrete, which rests on steel
beam and girder framework.
The lighting system provides
1,600,000 "lumens" of light from 80
mercury vapor lights, 16 aerial and sea
navigation lights, and 3 flashing hazard
lights, one at each end of the bridge,
another in the center at the highest
point of the bridge.
October 5, 1962
stream of tyeari -Now (Reality
A PERMANENT BRIDGE or tunnel
across the Canal appears to have been
seriously considered as far back as 1909,
when sites at Empire, Culebra, Gold
Hill, and Paraiso were considered.
Further talk of a permanent bridge
was postponed by actual construction
of a temporal)' suspension bridge at
Empire with a 12-foot roadway onlv a
few feet above the 95-foot level.
Here is the sequence of historical
events which led to construction of the
new Thatcher Ferry Bridge linking the
1913-Serious consideration again
was given to a permanent bridge or
tunnel and several comparative esti-
mates were made. Greater concern with
early opening of the Canal without
risk' of further delay appears to have
caused sidetracking of the project.
1929-The bridge-tunnel project
broke into print again in Panama Canal
files and newspapers, but quite likely
the financial crisis in that year stopped
anv further consideration at that time.
1937-Project revived by president
of Panama Automobile Club, Leopoldo
Arosemena. Pressure and interest by
various agencies on both sides of the
line continued from this date to the
immediate pre-war period by which
time a tunnel was being seriously-
considered for military reasons.
1941-In this year, negotiations with
an architectural engineering firm were
actually under way for design of a
tunnel. Thev were suspended by official
directive early in 1942 because of
1942— Miraflores swing bridge was
opened in June but it was never in-
tended as a substitute for the permanent
high-level fixed bridge or tunnel, having
been built primarily for third locks
construction. However, once built, it
undoubtedly has had a delaying effect
on the main project. The traffic it now
carries could not have been handled by
the existing ferry.
The General Relations Agreement
between the United States and Panama
effected bv an exchange of notes signed
at Washington May 18, 1942, contained
a number of commitments on the part
of the United States.
The agreement was related to, and
was, in effect, the counterpart of an
agreement covering the lease of defense
sites signed at Panama on the same
Point 4 of the 1942 Agreement, con-
cerning construction of a tunnel or
bridge over the Canal at Balboa, C.Z.,
commits the United States to build such
a bridge or tunnel when the World
War II emergency has ended.
1942-1954-The prospects of a
tunnel, and occasionally a bridge, came
up from time to time during this period,
originating both from political sources
Historic moment: Bridge sections joined May 16, 1962.
and from private interests soliciting the
opportunity to perform the design and
1954— The Governor concluded, after
review of the manv studies and argu-
ments, that a bridge was superior to
a tunnel. The Chiefs of Staff of the
U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, and the
Navy all concurred.
1955— New estimates were made of
a high-level bridge at Balboa, of a tvpe
and span lengths differing from previous
estimates. A bill was presented to Con-
gress authorizing the construction of
a bridge, at an estimated cost of
1955— Construction of a bridge across
the Canal at Balboa again became a
commitment of the United States under
the Eisenhower-Remon treatv of friend-
ship between the United States and
1956-On July 23, of this year, Pres-
ident Eisenhower, on a visit to Panama,
signed a bill authorizing and directing
the Panama Canal to construct, main-
tain, and operate a bridge over the
Canal, at Balboa. A supplemental appro-
priation providing $750,000 with which
to start design and engineering on the
bridge was signed bv the President on
August 28, 1957.
1957— On November 5, after a thor-
ough canvass of all eligible interested
firms, a contract was signed with the
firm of Sverdrup, Parcel & Associates
of St. Louis, Mo. to make a preliminary
engineering studv, and to present esti-
mates and schematic designs of several
types of bridges.
The following were selected in
December to constitute a technical
Board of Consultants for the bridge
Roland Parker Davis, M., ASCE,
Dean Emeritus, West Virginia Uni-
versity, Consulting Bridge Engineer.
Aymar Embury II, Consulting Archi-
tect, of New York.
Edward B. Burwell, Jr., Consulting
Geologist, and Chief Geologist, Office
of Chief of Engineers.
Ralph A. Tudor, M., ASCE, one-time
Chief Engineer of San Francisco Bav
Toll Crossings, Under Secretary, De-
partment of Interior, Washington, D.C.
E. L. Erickson, Chief, Bridge Design
Division, Bureau of Public Roads,
1958— Representatives of Sverdrup,
Parcel & Associates met in Balboa with
the Board of Consultants and with offi-
cials of the Panama Canal April 10,
and presented the results of their pre-
liminary studies. Design recommended
SRYS €X-PR€SID€nT RLFflRO:
. . . %Vell-3)e3ervea ZJribute . . .'
Dr. Ricardo J. Alfaro, former President of Panama (1931-1932), now Justice
of the International Court of Justice in The Hague, Holland, wrote the
following letter to the Honorable Maurice H. Thatcher commenting on an
article which appeared in a leading United States newspaper regarding the
Thatcher Fern- Bridge.
12315 Stoney Creek Road,
Rockville, Md., December 6, 1961.
My dear Governor Thatcher:
Please find enclosed the clipping you kindly handed me day before yesterday,
which I am returning to you with my thanks. I have read it with utmost interest
and pleasure and I am very happy that your signal services to your country
and to the cause of Pan-Americanism are duly recognized by a paper of such
great prestige as The Christian Science Monitor.
The parallel between yourself and your famous fellow Kentuckian Henry
Clay is both just and accurate. If Clay is entitled to be remembered as the
pioneer of Pan-Americanism in the United States, you have no lesser title
to the recognition, the gratitude and the respect of all the peoples of our
continent and particularly of the people of Panama for your magnificent work
on behalf of good understanding and real friendship between the Americans
of the North and the Americans of the South.
Giving your illustrious name to the colossal bridge that will re-establish
continuity in the land divided by the Panama Canal is an act of justice and
a well-deserved tribute. The Thatcher Bridge will be the culmination of a noble
thought which had its first expression in the Thatcher Ferry. I congratulate
you upon the honor you have received and my highest praise goes to the
Congress and to President Kennedy for their worthy action in honoring you.
Amelia joins me in congratulating you and in expressing best wishes for
your prompt and complete recovery, and with renewed assurances of my
admiration and esteem, I remain
Very sincerely yours,
Maurice H. Thatcher,
The Somerset, Washington, D.C.
R. J. Alfaro.
by Sverdrup, Parcel & Associates was
approved by the Board, and the
approximate alignment selected.
A contract was signed with Sverdrup,
Parcel & Associates in April to furnish
complete design for the type of bridge
1958— Construction work on the
bridge was formally initiated in Decem-
ber in a ceremony attended bv Panama
President Ernesto de la Guardia, Jr.,
and Canal Zone Governor W. E. Potter.
1959— First actual work on construc-
tion of the substructure took place in
Contract for the substructure was
awarded to Fruin-Colnon International.
S. A., and LeBoeuf and Dougherty, a
joint venture, from St. Louis, Mo.
1960— Contract for the superstruc-
ture was awarded to John F. Beaslev
Construction Co., of Dallas, Tex., in
1961— During June and July steel
began arriving from West Germany. Bv
November all piers and abutments were
On October 25 the last yard of con-
crete was poured on the substructure,
which was completed November 4.
1962-A 70-foot steel beam was
raised into place May 16 bv a floating
crane, joining the two sections of the
bridge while tugs tooted and Canal and
bridge workmen cheered. Gov. Robert J.
Fleming, Jr., accompanied bv other offi-
cials and newsmen, watched from the
tug San Pablo.
Octoher 5, 1962
And Some Bridge Project Sidelights
THE LAND REUNITED
By Elmer B. Stevens
Bridge Project Resident Engineer
ON THE NIGHT of September 8, 1962,
Thatcher Ferry Bridge blossomed out
with all its roadway lighting plus the
aircraft warning lights atop the high
arch. At this stage it could be compared
with a fine lady primping for a party,
complete except for the final touches of
"putting on her face."
All the graceful curves are now out-
lined with the proper degree of daring
and discretion, essential fastenings
secured, and the "tout ensemble" neatly
poised on high heels. Just as our lady
is now readv for the mirror of the
public eve, which reflects sidelights and
highlights that she may or may not
suspect, our bridge is nearly ready for
the same critical scrutiny.
The hard work now lies behind and
the lighter moments of the party lie
Just as our lady awaits her escort at
this stage, it should prove interesting
to pause and reflect on some of the
lighter moments that led to the present,
as well as to confirm some of the vital
statistics such as those that the dress-
maker had to know, when she fashioned
the alluring creation for the public
Tackling the latter first and leaving
the spice for last, a word may still be
in order about the type of structure.
Bridges are generally identified bv the
structural type of the main span, and
classified as to size by the clear length
between piers of that span.
This frequently leaves much unsaid
about the balance of the structure which
sometimes exceeds the scope of the
main span. The three main spans of the
Thatcher Ferry Bridge are properly
considered as a unit and are accurately'
described as a cantilever, tied-arch
combination. The approach spans are
of the "deck" type (roadway on
top) and are cantilever, simple-span
In technical parlance, the tied-arch
of the central span is called a "sus-
pended" span because of the manner
by which it is attached to the adjacent
cantilevers, but this does not make it
a "suspension" bridge, since that term
refers to the type that is supported
by heavy main cables, rather than
trusses, draped over high towers on
the main piers.
In terms of size, Thatcher Ferry
Bridge is one of the largest "South of
the Border" but does not rank high
among the large bridges of the world.
It is properly compared in size only
with other cantilever bridges and on
that basis, its main span of 1,128 feet
is less than two-thirds that of the world's
largest cantilever bridge, across the
St. Lawrence River at Quebec, Canada,
and built many years ago.
Its total weight of structural steel,
about 14,000 tons, is less than one-
quarter that of the huge Quebec bridge.
ELMER B. STEVENS, resident engineer
on the $20 million Thatcher Ferry Bridge
Project at Balboa, is retiring early in 1963
after a quarter century of service with the
Canal organization. From the time he
graduated from the University of Vermont
with a civil engineering degree until he
joined the bridge project, he has spent a
good part of his time designing and build-
ing bridges. He designed the Gatun Locks
swing bridge and made the cost estimate
for the bridge at Balboa on which the
appropriation was based.
Its height of 201 feet above high water,
however, places it among the highest
in the world— for which the height
was dictated by shipping requirements
rather than natural terrain at the site.
None is known to be higher in that
artificial respect, though many bridges
have greater clearances (height) that
were dictated by the terrain at
Whatever the Thatcher Ferry Bridge
lacks in size among the world's large
bridges, however, it amply compensates
as a symbol of unity. It is doubtful if
any bridge in the world surpasses it as
a uniting element between (1) two
parts of a country, (2) two continents,
( 3 ) two peoples and, in the not-too-
distant future, (4) the two parts of the
world's greatest highway system.
The bridge is a fitting and proper
sequel to the slogan coined during
Canal construction days, "The Land
Divided, the World United." We can
now saw "The Land Reunited" with
the secure knowledge that this fact
further enhances world unity, and at
a time when such unity is sorely needed.
At this point a fast curve is justified
by the fact that articles have already
been written on the sublime and the
technical features of the bridge and we
will now throw the switch that illumi-
nates some of the lighter moments of
the construction period.
There was the day, for instance,
when an inspection part)' from the
"Heights" arrived at the site of Pier 4
a few minutes ahead of the scheduled
start of the footing pour. The concrete
plant on shore had already been
cranked up and the first delivery, con-
sisting of a large bucket of grout
(sand, cement, and water without huge
aggregate— fortunatelyl ) was already on
Told that they had only a few
minutes to make their inspection, the
party decided to take their chances and
descended to the bottom of the coffer-
dam. In the meantime the grout arrived
and the bucket containing it was hoisted
over the receiving hopper, some 70 feet
above the exposed rock within the
cofferdam. At this point a workman,
(See p. 10)
The Panama Canal Review
TOP OF MAIN
TO 384 FEET
Type of Bridge:
Three main spans— Combination
Approach spans— Combination can-
Main' span: 1,128 ft.
Clearance over water at mean high
tide: 201 ft.
Maximum height: 384 ft.
On three main spans: 4.
On approaches: 2 ascending and
Lighting: Mercury vapor.
Pedestrian walkway: One, 4 ft. wide.
Loading: 20-ton trucks followed by
16-ton trailers. Also, 92-ton special
load at slow speed.
Wind: 70 m.p.h.
Earthquake: 5 percent of dead load of
Pier 5: 15 tons/sq. ft.
Other piers on rock: 20 tons sq. ft.
Caissons under land piers: 30 tons
Longitudinal force: Friction at expan-
sion bearings— 20 percent of dead
Design criteria: Standard specifications
for highway Bridges of the Amer-
ican Association of State Highway
Ice Cream Afloat
ONE OF THE features of the British
Shaw Savill round-the-world passenger
liner Northern Star is an American-type
soda fountain bar, equipped with the
latest gear from the United States. The
bar, which made a hit with the hundreds
of young people traveling on the vessel,
is located at one end of the sun-bathing
deck near the approach to the three
attractive swimming pools.
The tile-lined pools were built to
provide bathing facilities for all types
of swimmers from the paddlers and non-
swimmers to the experts.
Channel clearing enabled work barge to reach pier sites.
Pilings framework for cofferdam construction.
October 5, 1962
Lacy network of steel inside cofferdam for pier construction.
Total length 12,986 ft.
Excavation 589,000 cu. yds.
Fill 688,000 cu. yds.
Spoil 444,000 cu. yds.
Paving— Concrete . _ 59,000 sq. yds.
Paving— Asphalt 3,700 sq. yds.
Concrete 31,500 cu. yds.
Cement 52,000 bbls.
Reinforcing steel _ 1,100 tons
diameter 7,500 lineal ft.
Carbon 6,250 tons
Alloy 7,450 tons
Cable suspenders _ - 50 tons
Cast steel 150 tons
Reinforcing steel . _ 625 tons
Total steel -- 14,525 tons
Concrete 6,000 cu. yds.
Steel floor grating _ _ 16,000 sq. ft.
Handrails 12,008 lineal ft.
Paint 20,000 gals.
Bolts, high tensile. 350 tons.
Floating cranes' booms towered 400 feet high.
(Continued from p. 7)
later professing innocence concerning
the party below, opened the bucket
gates and down went the grout.
Almost as if blown up by the same
force that sent the grout down, the
inspection party appeared top-side,
bringing most of the grout back up
with them on their persons. Soberly
assured of an error, the inspection was
called off, the inspectors went home,
and the pour was resumed.
It is a matter of pure coincidence, of
course, that the bucket operator got
a 10 cents per hour raise starting that
day, and that the Contractor's Project
Manager was heard to remark that it
was the first time in his life he ever had
six inspectors lined up in his sights for
one pull of the trigger!
There also was the time when a
waterborne concrete delivery unit— an
"LCM" with concrete buckets in this
case— was being charged under the large
collection hopper at Dock 7. When the
buckets were filled, a malfunction of
the hopper gates prevented their closure
and the concrete kept on coming. The
LCM operator began receiving shouted
and conflicting instructions in two
Before he could decide which order
to follow, the LCM capsized and sank.
(Note— Fortunately this occurred
toward the end of the pour and a "next"
LCM was standing by to finish the
On other occasions, heavily-loaded
delivery units capsized en route from
Dock 7 to pier sites and the buckets
had to be fished out from Captain Jack's
harbor to prevent the possibility of their
becoming a part of a ship's "wheel."
Lighter moments on the superstruc-
ture seemed to center around the period
when final closure was being made on
the big arch, although one of those
moments was not so funny for the oper-
ators of a fat pool, based on the time
of closure, who had to explain the cir-
cumstances under which the pool went
to a high PanCanal official who later
awarded an honor (?) to one of the
There was the iron-worker, for
instance, who, in the absence of flags,
wanted to place one of our ladv's
garments on the ceremonial (closing)
piece of steel.
Through the entire construction
period the keen interest of the public
has been an inspiration, even if at the
same time its occasional skepticism has
been a problem. During the trying
period when cofferdam plans were
being revised "in mid-stream," it seemed
difficult to assure the public that "there
will be a bridge" and that the steel parts
that later went together so rapidly and
well, were, even then, being rolled,
fabricated, and shop assembled.
The work going on at that very time,
far from the site of the bridge, was the
TRAFFIC FLOW over the new
Thatcher Ferry Bridge is expected
to increase to 10,700 vehicles a day
within the next year.
Approximately 8,200 vehicles now
utilize the swinging bridge at Mira-
flores Locks and Thatcher Ferry
facilities each day.
Currently, 2,300 vehicles travel
daily between the City of Panama
and the Interior of the Republic. The
remaining 5,900 vehicles crossing the
Canal are cars, trucks, and buses
traveling between points bordering
work that made the future rapid and
spectacular erection possible.
Later on, as the two huge cantilevers
were being erected from the main piers
toward the mid-channel, it was evident
that the public was experiencing more
agony than the erectors as to whether
or not the spans would meet, being
unaware of the built-in devices that
guaranteed a perfect closure before the
first panel was ever cantilevered out
over the water.
Finally, there was the staunch belief
among the devoted public that the iron-
workers were predominantly Indians,
this being the result of past publicity
given to a group of Mohawk Indians
who are high iron-workers in the New
Efforts were made to advise the
public that these local "Indians" were
predominantly converted cowpunchers
from the plains of Texas. Some progress
was being made until a photograph was
published showing some iron-workers
in action, including their names on the
caption of the picture. All efforts at
explanation were suspended when one
of the names proved to be "Rain-
water"! Sometimes you have to let the
Piers, abutments completed in November 1961.
10 October 5, 1962
Board To Be Here
TRANSFER OF THE regular October
meeting of the Board of Directors of the
Panama Canal from Washington, D.C.,
to the Canal Zone makes it possible for
the directors to be on hand for both
the Thatcher Ferry Bridge dedication
October 12 and the Stevens Circle
dedication October 13.
Board members are the honorable
Cyrus R. Vance, Secretary of the Army,
stockholder; Stephen Ailes, Under Sec-
retary of the Army and board chairman;
Fred' Korth, George W. Ball, Clarence
D. Martin, Jr., J. Kenneth Mansfield,
John W. Martyn, C. Robert Mitchell,
Walter J. Pearson, Howard C. Petersen,
Dr. Charles J. Zinn, and James A.
Mr. Ailes, who, as a boy, knew Mr.
Stevens very well, will be the speaker
for the Stevens Circle ceremonies.
A joint Republic of Panama-United
States of America Thatcher Ferry Bridge
Dedication Committee is handling
arrangements for that event.
With Will Arey, Panama Canal Infor-
mation Officer, as chairman, other
members are: Camilo Levy Salcedo,
representing the Republic of Panama;
Carl E. Davis, representing the U.S.
Embassy; Lt. Col. Loehr M. Rigby, Jr.,
representing the Caribbean Command;
and the following Panama Canal
Paul Ficzeri, Jr., Kerry B. Magee,
J. M. Ruoff, N. B. Davison,' W. E. Burns,
L. B. Magnuson, Jerry Senear, Loron
B. Burnham, Eleanor Burnham, Ivan
D. Hilliard, E. M. Browder, Jr., Dwight
McKabney, John P. Smith, Jr., and
Richard C. Sergeant.
Elmer B. Stevens, bridge project res-
ident engineer, has served as special
advisor to the committee.
Shown as the first shovelfuls of earth marking start of construction of the bridge were
turned December 23, 1958, are (left to right) former U.S. Ambassador Julian Harrington;
former President Ernesto de la Guardia, Jr., of Panama; Roberto Lopez Fabrega, former
Minister of Public Works; and former Governor W. H. Potter of the Canal Zone.
Part of crowd gathered at groundbreaking ceremonies.
The Panama Canal Review
$75 Million Flows Into Panama Economy
DIVERSIFICATION was the key to
the impact of Canal Zone dollars on the
economy of the Republic of Panama
during the past fiscal year. Expenditures
for goods and services increased nearly
9 percent over the previous year, the
total exceeding $75 million.
No single major project or handful
of projects were responsible for the
increase, as the gains spread into many
nooks of Panama's economic life.
The amount going into the Republic's
markets through direct purchases made
in Panama by U.S. Government agen-
cies, contractors, and private organiza-
tions was up 14 percent to nearly
Net income to residents of Panama
employed in the Canal Zone rose to
nearly $33 million for a gain of almost
8 percent and estimated expenditures
in the Republic by residents of the Zone
topped S17 million for an increase of
nearly 6 percent.
Supplementing the pattern of Pan-
ama's school expansions for develop-
ment of human resources, on-the-job
training of residents of the Republic on
Panama Canal projects and with Zone
agencies has enabled many of them to
move higher up the ladder in private
enterprise fields through their increased
Available figures show employment
of residents of Panama by U.S. agen-
cies in the Zone and by contractors
working for Zone agencies topping
14.000 for a rise of nearly 700 compared
with a year earlier— and total wages in
this bracket above $30 million for an
increase of nearly $3 million.
This helped measurably toward the
Republic's gross national product ad-
vance of 8 percent and per capita
income gain of 5 percent for the last
Dock and ship workers job reclassifi-
cations early this year resulted in wage
increases of more than 20 percent for
them and in April approximately 10,000
Panamanian employees of the Panama
Canal got increases ranging up to
29 percent for skills recognition and
providing more employee incentive.
Food products purchases by all
Zone agencies in 1961 amounted to
$2,721,000 for the calendar year 1961,
for a gain of approximate!) $400,000.
The trend is upward and a substantial
increase is expected for 1962. possibh
topping $3 million.
Cains were listed in fixe of the eight
brackets (food products, beverages, con-
struction materials, consume] items,
services, and contracts) for a net in-
crease of $350,000-plus in Panama
ZONE SPENDING IN REPUBLIC
, , , 1961 1962
Estimated expenditures made in Republic of Panama by
residents of the Canal Zone. __ $16,316,000 $17,252,000
Estimated net income to residents of Republic of Panama
employed on the Canal Zone 30,491,000 32,877.000
Direct purchases made in Panama by U.S. Government
agencies, contractors, and private organizations ! 20,140,000 22,959,000
Annuity paid to Panama 1,930,000 1,930,00(1
Total $68,877,000 $75,018,000
1 Excluding purchases made in Panama by contractors for use in military and private
projects in the Canal Zone.
Panamanians hold key posts in many fields.
October 5, 1962
Canal purchases during the 1962
In May, under an agreement with
the National Cattlemen's Association of
Panama, the Panama Canal began buy-
ing 10,000 quarts of raw milk per week
from Panama producers. It is delivered
to the Mount Hope plant for processing
and bottling. This has meant an average
flow of about $8,000 a month into the
Panama economy and it appears likely
that milk purchases from Panama
sources will be approximately doubled
This is contingent upon the arrange-
ment proving satisfactory during the
initial 12-month period. To date it has
proven satisfactory and if supply sur-
vives drv season problems there appears
little doubt that the purchases will be
With all Panama Canal and Zone
agencies contracts up at least $2V2
million for the past fiscal year, the
number of bags of cement purchased
provided a kev index: 127,680 for 1962
compared with 78,300 for 1961.
In accord with Panama Canal policy
to purchase from Panama sources
whenever possible when quality and
prices of products are comparable, the
dollars to Panama trend is continuing
Added to this list most recently are
paper bags and cellophane and part of
the kerosene supply now is being bought
in the neighboring Republic, with
refinery products purchases expected to
increase further. Panama's first petro-
leum refinerv, built at a cost of $30
million, opened this year and is deliver-
ing petroleum products to oil compa-
nies that have distribution facilities in
Deliveries keep retail store unloading zones busy.
the Canal Zone and throughout Panama.
Not included in the solid gross pur-
chases figures are items purchased
through agents in Panama. These in-
clude many groceries, housewares, major
appliances, some toilet articles, cos-
metics, stationery, and other consumer
Two main factors are important in
volume of agricultural produce Pan-
ama Canal facilities acquire from the
With this base, there's an assured
minimum market if quality meets stand-
ards. And if it meets standards, it also
meets world standards for domestic
outlets or export to other Latin Amer-
ican countries and into the world
Supply, processing, transport play vital roles to meet
Further quality improvement is ex-
pected with the Republic's farm-to-
market road program being expanded.
On-the-farm quality has met or sur-
passed minimum standards in many
produce lines, but the transport problem
has curtailed the marketing field.
Reef, cabbage, and tomatoes remain
the big item purchases from Panama-
nian sources in the food products lines.
The expenditures by the Panama
Canal and agencies located in the Zone
made a notable contribution to the total
Republic of Panama economic activity,
which closed the last calendar year on
a high level, showed a more than
seasonal upturn at the start of this yeai
and may have reached new highs
The new Panama City terminal
marketing facility for fruits and vege-
tables opened in April. It was built
at a cost of $35,000, with $23,000
worth of equipment financed by AID
and another $29,250 worth of equip-
ment ordered recently is being financed
by AID funds.
This facility is part of a joint agricul-
tural marketing project directed toward
the goals of improving distribution
within the domestic market, supply-
ing Canal Zone requirements, and
developing export outlets.
Among the larger contracts let were
those for the Cardenas housing exten-
sion, being handled by the Federal
Aviation Agency for National Institute
of Health, Middle America Research
Unit, and for modification of hangars
and to rehabilitate housing and barracks
at Howard Field as a result of relocating
some flying activities to that field from
AMBASSADORS OF GOOD WILL
Camera Clubbers Americans
V/ho Know The Americas
WHEN IT COMES to "Americans
knowing the peoples of the Americas,"
members of the Diablo Camera Club
stand second to none.
In its short 17-year history the Club
has made so many field trips into
Panama and air flights to neighboring
countries that no one knows the actual
Last year the club members spent
intensive 3 and 4 day weekends in Gua-
temala's jungle ruins at Tikal; Trinidad;
Santa Marta, Colombia; Quito, Ecua-
dor; San Andres Island (Colombian);
and Christmas at Bogota.
And every trip, proudly relates Club
President Cecil Vockrodt, a military
civilian employee, "was in a COPA
plane (Compania Panamena de Avia-
cion, S.A.) and every time the pilot was
Mike' De Puv." Miguel De Puv and
his popular wife, Roma, are honorarv
members of the Club. Last August the
President of COPA, Carlos Icaza, pre-
sented the Club a special scroll for
having shown 15 consecutive years of
confidence in this well-known Panama-
Preston Minton, a Pacific side
"Corral" employee, is the Club's unani-
mously elected tour leader, bottle
washer, wet nurse, and documentary
On a memorable trip to Manizales.
Colombia, 3 years ago, he recalls wist-
fully. "We arrived at the height of the
coffee festival, but all our other arrange-
ments fell through." Club members
quickly divided into splinter groups,
some to secure coffee and chowder,
others to locate quarters and still others
to get towels, linens, and mattresses.
Minton recalls that through sheer luck
a vacant house was found. It cost more
than S170 for 3 days— and the place
was really packed.
(Manizales was one of the cities
seriously damaged by the earthquakes
that killed more than 30 persons in
Colombia last July 31.)
A somewhat similar experience witli
Like salt goes with pepper, so the Diablo
Camera Club flies with Miguel De Puv
at the controls. The popular "Mike" of
Compania Panamena de Aviacion (COPA)
poses in front of a trusty Camera Club
steed prior to a recent takeoff.
e far right is
October 5. 1962
tragic overtones was the flash flood that
stranded the Club at Santa Marta,
Colombia, a year ago last September.
It washed out the town's railroad
system, all bridges, and undermined the
foundation of the hotel in which the
members were staying.
Since the members had bused from
Barranquilla, they had to return there
by plane. But not until Minton had
cleared the Santa Marta airport runway
of debris bv personally piloting a tractor
and radioing Barranquilla for a DC-3
shuttle service. He also set up a system
of priorities so that Colombian doctors,
who had been holding their national
convention at Santa Marta, could fly out
first to attend to operations they had
While waiting for the evacuation.
Club members manned the galleys in
the hotel for the Club and other guests,
boiled all the water (the water system
had broken down) and used Minton's
chlorine pills for the reassurance of all.
Every place the Club has visited,
proudly notes former president Charles
McG. Brandl, Canal engineer in charge
of the cut-widening project, it has been
invited to return.
Among some of the local field trips
the Club has taken during the past year
were visits to the Colon Free Zone
where a talk was given by the Free
Zone Director, Jose D. Bazan, who is
Panama's Second Vice President; a tour
of the Refineria Panama near Colon;
a trip through the Panama Boston Com-
pany's oleo plant in Panama City; and
the annual visit to the Finca Bermejal
of Eduardo Cucalon near Chepo.
Mr. Cucalon and his wife, Delia, and
the De Puns are the only honorary
members of the Club, whose member-
ship is limited to 150 persons living on
the Canal Zone.
Club members, who use only Panama-
nian commercial vehicles for their local
trips, even for jaunts as close as the
National Museum in Panama City, have
been to Costa Rica six times in 6 years.
They know Ocu and downtown David
like the palms of their hands. In Colom-
bia a President of that nation has greeted
them and thev have been guests at the
private home of an ex-president twice.
In fact, on a recent visit to Medellin.
Colombia's second largest city, a plane
load of high Colombian Government
officials flew in from Bogota just to be
with the group during one of its long
The Club has visited Peru, Salvador,
and Venezuela and has been to Jamaica,
the Virgin Islands, and Curacao a
number of times. It has been praised
bv numerous foreign dignitaries as well
A flash flood in Santa Marta, Colombia, didn't stop the Diablo shutterbugs even though
it caught the city unawares and caused extensive damage, including the ruin of the hotel
in which this picture was taken. Wading through the flooded dining room with a camera
around his neck is Club president Cecil Vockrodt.
as U.S. Embassy representatives as
being Ambassadors of Good Will
Since the Club departs from Tocii-
men Airport, it flies under Panamanian
documentation and it is rare for the
Club members not to be met on arrival
at foreign points bv the local Panama-
nian Consul. Local hosts repeatedly tell
Club members "We look forward to the
return of our Panamanian friends."
Last year the Canal Zone Club had
the pleasure of playing host to the
Medellin Camera Club. The Medellin
visitors enjoyed the Canal Zone and
Panama so much that some of them
have made return flights to visit with
their Diablo Camera Club friends.
Members of the Medellin, Colombia, Camera Club recently visited the Isthmus as the
guests of the Diablo Camera Club. The visitors pose for a picture upon their arrival at
The Panama Canal Review
GEOLOGISTS TRY THEIR FINS
SKINDIVING is definitely not on the
list of skills expected of a Federal
geologist or engineer. But when the
Canal found it necessary to study the
design of a possible new reserve water
supply for putting ships through the
hilltops, two Engineering Division em-
ployees donned masks, oxygen tanks,
and fins for prowls around the bottom
of Gatun Lake.
Swimming among the algae and moss-
festooned trunks of dead trees that were
inundated when the lake filled up 50
years ago. Engineering Geologist Robert
H. Stew art and Soils Engineer Anthonv
P. Mann saw with their own eyes the
kind of earth that exists at various points
along the proposed site for a big earth-
and-rock dam for water storage.
If built, the clam will add 44% per-
cent to the Canal's present capacity to
store water against the annual dry-
season shortage. This will be the water-
w a) s first reserve storage project since
Madden Dam and Lake were built in
The proposed dam would take
perhaps 5 years to complete. But it
could impound some 430,000 additional
acre-feet of water. An acre-foot is a unit
of 1 acre in area, 1 foot deep. The
Canal now has usuable storage capacity
of 445,000 acre-feet in Madden Lake,
520,000 in Gatun-a total of 965,000
The new dam could solve the prob-
lem of having enough water to serve
ship-transit demands for the foreseeable
On the basis of what the skindiving
revealed and mechanical tests including
results of deep borings for earth and
Could Hike Water
Storase 44 l A %
rock samples, Geologist Stewart will be
able to recommend the alignment for
the dam. Specifications also will be pre-
pared as to the dumping of spoil from
other work plus material which must
be specially excavated. The work would
be done under contract.
Still in the advanced-study stage, but
approved in principle by Gov. Robert J.
Fleming, Jr., and the Board of Directors,
tentative plans call for an approximately
2-mile long rock fill to be piled along
a dog-leg course across the western arm
of Gatun Lake, where it reaches deep
into a sector of indented jungle shore-
line and islands commonly known as
the Trinidad area.
The dam itself would be wholly
within the Canal Zone, and the areas
along which it would raise the water
level by some 10 or 11 feet also are a
part of the Zone. This would move the
shoreline back between 50 and 100 feet
in most places, a little more in others.
Canal Zone jurisdiction extends inland
from the banks of Gatun Lake in this
area to a point 15 feet higher in altitude
than the lake's normal height of 85 feet
above sea level.
Preliminary plans call for alignment
across Guacha Island and much smaller
Tern Island. Both islands are readily-
visible from the main Canal channel
between Gatun Locks and Barro
Colorado Island— the wildlife preserve.
Guacha Island would form the base
of a combined single lock and spillway.
Through this, passenger and garden
produce launches, police, and fishing
craft would be able to navigate readily
into the western reaches of the lake just
as they do now.
There are few roads in the Trinidad
area of the Republic of Panama. Beyond
the shoreline of the lake live many Pan-
amanian villagers and small farmers
who now use the lake for access to the
Unusual for a woman, but not at all phenomenal for Mrs. Joanne
Allen, a Canal geologist, was an assignment on the drillboat to
measure, inspect, and file for reference core samples of rock and
earth brought up at Booby Island near the southern terminus of
the proposed dam. Mrs. Allen earned her B.S. in geology at
Kansas State University. She came to the Isthmus 3 years ago,
is the mother of two boys. Assisting her with the samples is
driller helper Jose Rios of Panama.
After a preliminary underwater inspection of the nearby lake
bottom, Robert H. Stewart, the Canal's geologist, doffed his
skindiving gear to check findings with a map aboard the launch
Shearwater, which was serving as a tender for the drill barge.
Borings for soil core samples were being taken at a depth of 120
feet. At a nearby location, borings will have to go down 250 feet.
October 5. 1962
C.atun boat landing en route to the
Panamanian port city of Colon. This
they would continue to do.
The jungle-grown top of Tern Island
has been partially cleared by Canal
survey forces. It was formerly a hill and
probably will be leveled off if it becomes
part of the dam.
The Dredging Division will employ
a time-tried technique, using what has
been called a "submarine bulldozer" to
clear underwater stumps and trunks.
A barge, weighted down with concrete
pilings so that it rides 20 feet below its
normal draft, would be pushed through
the dead timber by a tug. Whatever this
does not knock down or push over can
Width of the storage dam at its base
might vary from 500 to 1,000 feet on
either side of its centerline, depending
on further geological studies to find a
Much already is known about what
lies under the lake waters in this fairly
hilly area. When glaciers were covering
North America in the last Ice Age, the
Isthmus was wider and stood much
higher out of the sea than it does now.
As the ice melted, the sea encroached.
Then the rivers brought down muck
and silt, depositing them in what had
been the valleys to form swamp areas
near sea level at many points.
Geologists now must leam the depth
and character of these deposits, parti-
cularly those in an old geologic area in
what was once a valley between Guacha
Island and the mainland.
Many of the problems foreseen in
building the dam are not unique, though
Canal experts believe the structure may
be a "'first" in one respect. There is no
record of a previous attempt to build
a rock-fill dam under water. But Canal
engineers think they can do it, despite
the heavy flow from this end of the lake
during seasonal downpours. Present
plans contemplate a rock-fill dam
that will be blanketed with earth for
In this big rock-piling project, it is
Survey crews recently cleared part of Guacha Island, which could be leveled off to become
part of the proposed dam near its southern terminus. Spoil would be dumped to fill in the
passage (right) between the island and the mainland.
Soils Engineer Anthony P. Mann adjusts
his skindiving equipment for a foray among
the dead stumps on Garun Lake bottom to
observe terrain conditions.
planned to make maximum use of the
spoil already loosened and ready for
moving from Las Cascadas Reach and
the material to be excavated under the
new contract to widen the Canal "Cut"
all the way to Gamboa.
This rock spoil must go somewhere.
By dumping it at the dam site, the
Canal's need for a wider channel also
would contribute to making sure there
will be enough water storage capacitv
to float all ships seeking transit during
the next few decades.
Are YOU a Delinquent?
'THERE ARE 50 million vision delin-
quents on the street," says the American
Optometric Association, and this num-
ber undoubtedlv includes many thou-
sands of people wearing out of date
With one-fourth of the population
requiring vision care, treatment or cor-
rection, business, industry, and school-
work can't proceed at the best possible
level of efficiency. Poor work, an adverse
effect on the individual's overall health,
and a tragically high incidence of acci-
dents often are the result of vision
defects. See page 19 for warning signs.
The Panama Canal Review
MORSE CODE, a skill which John A.
Morales learned while in radio school
in the Navy, is now being passed on to
a group of young people.
Although the Accounting Division
employee says he is a bit rusty, Mr.
Morales still is able to keep the attention
of the students who gather around his
dining room table every Tuesday and
Thursday evening at 6.
An average evening's class begins
with a short recall session. "What is 'A'?
'Z? 'K'? Send your name on the key."
Then there is practice in receiving. For
this purpose, Mr. Morales uses a record-
ing of different letters in code. Students
are expected to take down what the
Classes are held for 8 weeks and the
students aspire to a goal of five words
per minute, sending and receiving.
Successful completion of a course of
this nature is required for the first class
Hoy Scout rating and the speed of five
words per minute entitles the Bov
Scouts to a merit badge. Those who
wish may go on to try for the novice
"ham" radio license, which involves
more technical radio knowledge in
addition to skill in code.
The first of three classes which Mr.
Morales has started was held in the
summer of 1961 with a group of 11 Boy-
Scouts. His son, John, who now acts as
an auxiliary instructor, began his training
in this class.
A recent class was a bit unusual,
because for the first time two girls
slipped in. The girls, Gail Harrison and
Jeanette Morales, seemed to be keeping
up with the lessons at least as well as
the boys; at least they had as much fun.
SCHOOL CALENDAR 1962-1963
End of first grading period October 19
Panama Independence Day (holiday) November 2
Veterans Day (holiday) November 12
Thanksgiving holidays (4 days) November 22-25
End of second grading period December 7
Christmas holidays (11 days) December 22— January 1
End of third grading period January 25
Washington's Birthday (holiday) February 22
End of fourth grading period March 8
Easter holidays (9 days) April 6-14
End of fifth grading period April 26
Memorial Day (holiday) May .30
Commencement June 4
End of sixth grading period June 5
Schools close June 5
Budding Morse Code operators get checked by instructor John Morales of the Accounting
Division. From left to right seated are Ralph Stinson, Lars Morales, and Jeanette Morales.
Standing are Harry Stinson, Mr. Morales, John Morales, Jr., and Gail Harrison.
October 5, 1962
(Continued from p. 3)
Canal workers, Mr. Thatcher made
every possible effort to obtain approval
by the U.S. Congress of a law which
was passed in 1944 giving disability
retirement benefits to non-U. S. -citizen
employees of the Panama Canal. This
legislation has benefited thousands of
Panamanians as well as a number of
employees of other nationalities.
The work done by Mr. Thatcher on
behalf of the Isthmian community did
not go unrecognized. During a meeting
held July 30, 1930, the Federation
for Highway Education unanimously
approved a motion asking that former
Gov. Harry Burgess of the Canal Zone
give the name "Thatcher Highway" to
the road between Balboa and Arraijan.
Perhaps it was this eloquent demon-
stration of public affection which
inspired the U.S. Congress to pass
Public Law 87-125 which gave the
name of the well-known "Governor" to
the magnificent bridge which unites the
Americas, an action which has been
termed by former Panama President
Dr. Bicardo J. Alfaro an "act of justice
and a well deserved tribute."
A gesture of recognition was made
by the residents of the town of Arraijan
who gave Mr. Thatcher a parcel of land
in that area in gratitude for the part he
took in the development of the town.
On his part, Mr. Thatcher has set aside
this lot for the construction of a
children's playground which has been
named in his honor.
The Government of Panama also has
honored the distinguished Canal pioneer
by presenting him the Order of Vasco
Nunez de Balboa with plaque. Ecuador
has given him the Order of Merit and
the Order of the Eloy Alfaro Founda-
tion. In 1930 he received the Order of
Bolivar from Venezuela when he visited
Caracas as a member of a committee
which presented Venezuela a statue of
An enthusiastic promoter of Pan
American ideals, Mr. Thatcher stated
recently: "I have done whatever I could
to promote good relations between
Panama and the United States; I will
always try to see that the Republic of
Panama receives just treatment and
I believe that I can depend on the good
will of the Panamanian people."
In addition to the honors which
Mr. Thatcher has received from Pan-
ama, Ecuador, an Venezuela, all proof
of the high esteem in which he is held,
he recently was presented the pen which
President Kennedy used to sign the law
naming the new bridge across the
Panama Canal "Thatcher Ferry Bridge."
TH€ 'WW HflV€ IT
SEE? IT'S NOT SIMPLE
GOOD VISION is an important factor
in preventing accidents at work, on the
road, and at play. Emphasizing vision
to all is a safety asset; therefore, good
vision is now considered "a family
affair." Adults and children must make
the most of their eyesight by having
an annual check-up.
Neglecting youngsters' vision is in-
excusable for parents who try to give
their children everything they need for
a successful future. At the same time,
parents have an obligation to safeguard
their own vision through eye correction
and eye protection.
Vision requirements change. The
visual demands of modern life can't be
compared to those that confronted our
Work, reading, television, driving a
car, all call for special requirements
from the eyes. Demands can be summed
up in six basic areas: Good distance
acuity, depth perception, good fields
of vision, good eye muscle balance,
good near point vision, and good color
A person doesn't have to be "in the
dark" about visual abilities. You can
test yourself in all six categories for
indications that professional help is
Eyes have good distance acuity when
able to focus and see clearly singly and
together for distance.
How's depth perception? That's a
question of judging correctly the dis-
tance between oneself and other objects,
even when both are in motion.
You have a good field of vision if you
can see over a large area on the horizon
as well as up and down without moving
your eyes. This includes seeing things
moving in or out from the sides.
Muscle balance means ability to focus
the eyes simultaneously and with ease
at a given object at varying distances.
If one can see accurately and con-
centrate on close detail for long periods
of time without discomfort, near point
Color discrimination means the ability
to identify colors and hues accurately.
Other vision problems:
Some people may move frequendy
from areas of poor illumination to good
lighting and vice versa. Can you adjust
readily and see adequately under either
How's your glare recovery? Driving
along a highway at night, does
vision return to normal efficiency in
1 or 2 seconds after a car with glaring
headlights has approached and passed?
Admittedly, a do-it-yourself eye test
is far from acceptable as a judge of
whether vision is up to date or still in
the "dark ages."
A once-a-year visit to the optometrist
is the modern way to safeguard eye
health. Deficiencies do not develop in
a few days or weeks. There is a gradual
lessening of ability. The optometrist is
the doctor who can detect a lapse in anv
area of vision deficiency and direct its
Perhaps the most inexcusable mistake
is to be fitted with a pair of corrective
eye glasses and continue to use them for
years without re-examination. Not onlv
work but play is affected. As work
requirements change, and leisure time
activities vary from year to year, correc-
tive lenses should be brought up to date
at the same pace.
i — ACCIDENTS
YEAR TO DATE
7948 14995 95
( ) Locks Overhaul Injuries Included In total.
The Panama Canal Review
50 yearJ c4ao
ROADS WERE being resurfaced in the
Canal Zone 50 years ago and the Canal
Zone Police were being reorganized, but
there was little work for the traffic
police. According to a note in the Canal
Record there were 65 automobiles
licensed to travel in the Canal Zone in
1912. Of these, 14 were the property of
residents of the Canal Zone and the
remainder were owned by citizens of
the Republic of Panama. All were pas-
senger vehicles with the exception of a
motor wagon used at Mount Hope and
Cristobal. There were, in addition, 31
Plans for construction of the super-
structure of the Atlantic terminal docks
at Cristobal were being prepared in
October 1912. The committee in charge
recommended that in view of un-
certainty existing as to the amount of
freight to be handled at the Atlantic
terminal after the completion of the
Canal work, no cargo handling cranes
or special unloading appliances were
to be installed with the exception of
unloading masts designed for holding
blocks and falls.
Total enrollment of the Canal Zone
schools for the first week ending
October 4, 1912 was 1,000.
25 years cAao
RECAUSE OF THE tense international
situation 25 years ago this month, fears
were expressed in Washington that rati-
fication of the new treaty between the
United States and Panama would be
delayed. Objections to certain terms
were reportedly being made by the
U.S. War Department.
Spy fever hit the Canal Zone as the
Panama-American reported that two
Japanese who had been guests at the
Tivoli were seen taking pictures of the
Pacific Locks, Madden Dam, and
Caillard Cut. These pictures, the paper
said "would be of the greatest military
value to an enemy of the United States."
Officials of the Panama Pacific Line
announced that thev would remove
their three large passenger vessels from
the inter-coastal run through the Pan-
ama Canal and put them on a new
service between New York and the east
coast of South America. A report from
Washington, D.C. stated that the new
regulations for Panama Canal tolls
might have been one of the reasons for
the proposed transfer.
Meanwhile, Col. Glen E. Edgerton,
Engineer of Maintenance, announced
that construction had begun on the
three new Panama Railroad Steamship
Line vessels and a visiting U.S. Con-
gressman said appropriations totaling
$1 million were to be made for con-
struction of quarters at the Fleet Air
and Submarine Rases at Coco Solo.
10 yearJ c4ao
MORE THAN 1,200 Panama Canal
employees met in Ralboa Stadium in
October 1952, to protest what they
called an "unjust and unreasonable in-
crease in rent" on Canal Zone quarters.
They asked for a congressional investiga-
tion not only of rents but of the entire
Panama Canal operation. Gov. J. S.
Seybold refused a Central Labor Union
request for a 6 month's extension on
the Panama Canal rent increases but
approved of the employees' collec-
tive effort to seek reconsideration in
Washington of the rental increase.
During the same month, Ralboa
Heights announced that approximately
$5 million would be spent on the Canal's
two principal housing projects on the
Pacific side during the fiscal year quar-
ters construction program. The plans
called for the construction of units for
168 families at the new Corozal town-
site and along Empire Street in Ralboa.
A new record for the number of com-
mercial ships to transit the Canal in
1 month was set in October 1952, when
674 ships of 300 Panama Canal tons or
more were put through the Canal. Tolls
and ship tonnages also hit a new high.
Meanwhile, Panama Canal authorities
announced that steps were to be taken
to increase the capacity of the Canal.
One year c4ao
AN INCREASE in medical assistance
for disability relief annuitants of the
Panama Canal was approved by the
Board of Directors. The plan for further
extending medical assistance to the
annuitants called for expanding visiting
nurse service, furnishing drugs free of
cost when ordered by physicians and
the employment of two part-time
Preliminary work was started on a
$927,000 contract providing for the
construction of 100 quarters in the
townsite of Pedro Miguel. The housing
units are part of the replacement
housing to be built in the Canal Zone
as part of the Nine-Point Program of
benefits to Panama.
These are members of the Colombian Kart Club who made a clean sweep of the Labor
Day Kart Championships in Ancon and contributed $200 to the United Fund. The sole girl
on the team, Christiane Bigot, is third from the left. Her teammates were Mario Gomez,
Victor Barreto, Edgar Cardenas, Mario Correa, and Elias Matroni. Gabriel Campuzano
was head mechanic. All are from Bogota, Colombia.
October 5, 1962
(On the basis of total Federal Service)
Elias A> Cj ron
Valentine N. Gordon
Lloyd W. Peterson
Leon F. Small
William R. Dl
Ronald D. Williams
Ralph K. SkinneT
Staff Assistant to
James L. Fulton
Chief, Rates and Analysis
Jack K. Campbell
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Vernon B. Berry
Berta I. Quinn
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Charles R. Bowen
Joseph L. Gwinn
Electrical Systems Inspector
Navigational Aid Worker
Edward B. Parker
Central Office Repairman
James W. Riley
Central Office Repairman
Gilbert W. Card
George N. Rawlins
David N. Benard
Asphalt or Cement Worker
Nelson O. Williar
Medical Typing Assistant
Samuel M. Gaynor
Meat Cutter Assistant
George S. Robinson
R. F. Huldtquist, Jr.
Chief Engineer, Towboat
Thomas W. Gove
Towing Locomotive Operator
Clifford A. Thompson
Helper Lock Operator
Oscar />. A/ingq
Pjrffice Jt[i ord
Maintenance Pa 1
Rupert E. Belenfante
Jose M. Quiroz
William H. Cox
Asphalt or Cement Worker
Helper Marine Machinist
Charles J. Palles
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
Leader Heavy Laborer
Jose D. DeLeon
Geraldine W. Allen
Oscar A. Landaverde
Ruby R. Lynton
Stock Control Clerk
F. E. Thompson
Milk Plant Worker
Clara Cox Pimento
Stock Control Clerk
Victor A. Marks
Dry Cleaning Presser
Leonora W. Fearron
Food Service Sales Checker
General Foreman Stockman
Water Service Man
Melford L. Matthews
Geraldo A. Myrie
John M. Quinland
Juan F. Estrada
Helper Automotive Mechanic
The Panama Canal Review
PROMOTIONS AND TRANSFERS
EMPLOYEES who were promoted or
transferred between August 5 and Sep-
tember 5 are listed here. Within-grade
promotions and job reclassifications are
OFFICE OF THE
Annie R. Rathgeber, from Clerk-Typist,
License Section, to Secretary (Typing),
Panama Canal Information Office.
Catherine I. Oliver, from Clerk-Stenog-
rapher to Secretary (Stenography).
CIVIL AFFAIRS BUREAU
Frank Thomas, from Chauffeur, Gorgas
Hospital, to Detention Guard, Police
Ruben H. Austin, Clerk-Typist, from Main-
tenance Division to Fire Division.
Patricia P. Bonnifield, from Clerk-Typist,
Gorgas Hospital, to Library Assistant,
Canal Zone Library.
William M. Jensen, Lealand A. Larrison,
from Finance Branch Superintendent to
Relief Supervisor, Balboa.
Donald L. Nolan, from Theater Doorman,
Supply Division, to Substitute Window
Division of Schools
Helen M. Starr, from Elementary School
Teacher-Principal to Elementary School
Ruth H. Amedee, from Substitute Teacher,
Latin American Schools, to Elementary
Teacher, Latin American School.
Alice M. James, from Clerk, Supply Divi-
sion, to Clerk-Typist.
Ann B. Kennon, from Theater Usher,
Supply Division, to Recreation Specialist.
Lanty Patrick, from Laborer Cleaner to
Leader Laborer Cleaner.
Heman A. Sedda, from Cartographic Com-
pilation Aid to Surveying Technician,
Kenneth F. Brassel, from Pipefitter, Indus-
trial Division, to Plumbing Inspector,
Contract and Inspection Division.
Charles J. Holmes, from Construction
Inspector (General), Contract and In-
spection Division, to Shift Engineer
Milton M. Lacroix, Robert J. Roy, from
Lock Operator Machinist, Locks Divi-
sion, to Shift Engineer (Mechanical).
Domingo D. Hinds, Paul W. Kramer, Jr..
from Marine Machinist, Industrial Divi-
sion, to Shift Engineer (Mechanical).
Ruth E. Clement, from Clerk-Typist to
Accounts Maintenance Clerk.
Julio B. Pinillo, from Palancaman to
Alfred Leacock, from Helper Cable Splicer
to Maintenanceman Distribution Systems.
Viberto B. Weekes, Warehouseman, from
Basil C. De Sousa, from Laborer Cleaner
to Helper Maintenance Machinist.
Vernon R. Roberts, from Utility Worker.
Supply Division, to Laborer Cleaner.
August 5 through September 5
Edward J. Russell, Jr., from Supervisory
Typing Clerk, Locks Division, to Prop-
erty' and Supply Clerk.
Manuel A. Richard, from Floating Plant
Fireman to Floating Plant Water Tender.
Murphy Robinson, from Seaman to Leader
Patricio Martinez, Luther B. Ward, from
Launch Seaman to Seaman.
Fidencio Echaverra, Sotero Garcia, from
Boatman to Launch Seaman.
Sidney O. Beckford, Humberto E. Santa-
maria, from Boatman to Seaman.
Dalton R. Ferdinand, from Helper Marine
Machinist to Floating Plant Fireman.
Claud A. Morant, from General Helper to
Albert H. Plumer, from Leader Refrigera-
tion and Air Conditioning Mechanic to
Lead Foreman, Refrigeration and Air
John H. Childress, from Refrigeration and
Air Conditioning Mechanic to Leader
Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
James R. McCarrick, from Towing Loco-
motive Operator, Locks Division, to
Dawson G. Jolley, from Work Orders Clerk
to Accounts Maintenance Clerk.
Isidro Nogueira, from Heavy Truck Driver
to Electrical Equipment Repairman.
Harry A. Jones, Truck Driver, from Supply
Cecil A. Springer, from General Medical
Supply Clerk to Supervisory Medical
Supply Clerk, Coco Solo Hospital.
Bias Romero, from Laborer, Maintenance
Division, to Heavy Pest Control Laborer.
Division of Sanitation.
Dr. Leo P. Biese, from Medical Officer
(General Medicine and Surgery), to
Medical Officer (General Practice).
Dolores Espinosa, from Staff Nurse (Oper-
ating Room), to Nurse Supervisor (Oper-
Mary Basso, Elizabeth M. Hayden, Irene
A. Sandberg, from Staff Nurse to Staff
Nurse (Medicine and Surgery).
Lloyd M. Tait, from File Clerk to Clerk.
Kathleen I. M. Nelson, from Nurse Super-
visor (Psychiatry), to Director of Nursing.
Gloria J. Hallett,' from Head Nurse (Psy-
chiatry), to Nurse Supervisor (Psychiatry).
Madeleine M. Deraps, from Stock Control
Clerk, Industrial Division, to Time-
Jaroth E. Archibald, Theodore A. Brath-
waite, Victor A. Harrison, Albert S.
Hunter, Willesty Mitchell, from Launch
Seaman to Launch Operator.
Barrington A. Smith, from Seaman to
Albert A. Waisome, from Heavy Laborer
Prince M. Grant, from Heavy Laborer to
George C. Scheibe, from Lead Foreman,
Lock Operations, to General Foreman,
Robert T. Thomas, from Leader Lock
Operator Electrician to Lead Foreman
Locks Control House.
Leon S. Fishbough, from Lock Operator
Machinist to Leader Lock Operator
William B. Redmond, Russell V. Severance,
from Lock Operator Electrician to Leader
Lock Operator Electrician.
Oliver G. Paterson, from Towing Loco-
motive Operator to Lock Operator
Edward W. Kirby, from Guard to Towing
Upton W. Naron, from Substitute Window
Clerk, Postal Division, to Towing Loco-
Cyril A. David, from Painter to Leader
Juan A. Allen, from Toolroom Attendant
Benjamin Jemmonrt, from School Bus
Driver, Motor Transportation Division,
Rodolfo Ayarza, Gregorio Piterson, from
Line Handler to Helper Lock Operator.
Roberto McDonald, Virgilio Vega, from
Deckhand to Line Handler.
Jesus Becker, Leonard J. Blychanton, from
Utilitv Worker, Supply Division, to Line
Jose D. Romero, from Laborer Cleaner,
Community Services Division, to Line
Marvin K. Davis, from Packager, Supply
Division, to Line Handler.
Anastasio Sogandares, from Planner and
Estimator to Supervisory Planner and
Dennis A. Gilbert, from Purchasing Agent
to Planner and Estimator.
Ralph E. Leathers, from Maintenance
Machinist to Inspector (Elevators and
OFFICE OF THE COMPTROLLER
Duane M. Perkins, from Supervisory EAM
Project Planner, Payroll and Machine
Accounting Branch, to Digital Computer
Systems Analyst, Accounting Policies
and Procedures Staff.
Robert W. Childers, from EAM Project
Planner to Supervisory EAM Project
Planner, Payroll and Machine Account-
Robert K. Hanna, from Accounting Tech-
nician to Accountant, Accounting Divi-
SUPPLY AND COMMUNITY
James O. DesLondes, from Administrative
Services Officer, Office of Director, to
General Supply Officer (Superintendent,
Storehouse Branch), Supply Division
Earl W. Sears, from Administrative Services
Assistant, Community Services Division,
Office of the Chief, to Administrative
Services Officer, Office of the Director.
October 5, 1962
Joseph B. Burgoon, from Lead Foreman
(Dry Cleaning), to Laundry and Dry
Cleaning Plant Superintendent.
Patna L. Brown, from Retail Store Super-
visor to Assistant Commissary Store
Seabert Haynes, from Sales Section Head
to Retail Store Supervisor.
Bobby J. Stokes, from Guard, Locks Divi-
sion, to Service Center Supervisor.
George Taylor, from Leader Heavy
Laborer to Leader Scrap Materials
William A. Holder, from Warehouseman to
Erskine D. Clinton, from Counter Attend-
ant to Truck Driver.
Allan R. Ellis, from Utility Worker to Sales
Cyntia A. Ellis, from Utility Worker to
Clarence A. Tomlinson, from Laborer
Cleaner to Warehouseman.
Alfredo A. Gale, from Heavy Laborer to
Eduardo Osborne, from Laborer Cleaner
and Special Waiter to General Helper
and Special Waiter.
Terrell C. Deakins, from Theater Usher to
Sylvia G. Best, from Car Hop to Counter
Ernesto A. Harrison, from Pinsetter to
Joseph Higgs, from Package Boy to Utility
Arthur M. Butcher, from Package Boy to
Frederick D. Simmons, from Bus Boy to
Alfred Davidson, from Laborer Cleaner to
Angel Molinar, from Laborer, Dredging
Division, to Dairy Worker.
Manuel Caballeros, from Laborer, Main-
tenance Division, to Heavy Laborer.
Community Services Division
Francisco Villarreal, from Laborer to
Silvio Gallardo, from Laborer to Grounds
Maintenance Equipment Operator.
Terencio Forbes, Laborer, from Dredging
Herman V. Cameron, from Truck Driver
to School Bus Driver.
Charles T. Francis, from Winchman to
Leader Ship Stevedore.
Tolo Singh, from Helper Electrician to
Daniel A. Viafora, from Cargo Marker to
William R. Graham, from Supervisory
Administrative Services Assistant to Ad-
ministrative Services Officer.
Enrique Riviere, from High Lift Truck
Operator, to Freight Clerk.
OTHER PROMOTIONS which did not
involve changes of title follow:
Earl F. Unruh, Director of Posts, Postal
Edna T. Karpinski, Director of Nursing,
Coco Solo Hospital.
Raymon A. Nesbitt, Admeasurer, Naviga-
L. Sybil Riesch, Nurse Supervisor (General
Medical and Surgical Hospital), Gorgas
Merlin B. Yocum, Supervisory Cargo
Checking Officer, Terminals Division.
Paul F. Dooley, Marine Traffic Controller,
Betty R. Olsen, Time, Leave, and Payroll
Clerk, Accounting Division.
Joan R. Cartotto, Clerk-Stenographer,
Office of the Director, Engineering and
Virginia C. McCue, Library Assistant,
Canal Zone Library.
Ruthwin Samuels, Retail Store Supervisor,
Sidney Brandford, Clerk, Navigation Divi-
Isidro Cruz, Jorge Hernandez, Benito
Lucero, Jos£ D. Pe>ez, Gregorio Ruiz,
Facundo Villarreal, Surveying Aid, En-
Eric C. Henry, Alberto Robinson, Victor
E. Waite, Utility Worker, Supply Divi-
IN ANOTHER Canal improvement, all
hands working together have been able
to cut the average time a transiting ship
spends in Canal Zone waters by a full
hour. It's 15.5 hours now versus 16.5
hours last year. One hour saved will not
make a voyage, but they all add up
to better service for world shipping.
It also represents a possible saving of
$50 to $100 an hour in vessel operating
costs. With more than 1,000 transits
being made by ocean-going vessels
annually, an estimated total savings of
$1 million by Canal users is possible,
assuming an average vessel operating
cost of $100 per hour.
Lock Walls Pared Down
A TICKLISH nocturnal job done bv
Canal divers along the concrete approach
walls at Pedro Miguel Locks has been
completed as part of the long-range
plan to improve the waterway's capa-
bility of handling larger ships. The
broad-at-the-bottom slopes, or "Batters,"
of the locks walls have been cut back
along their entire 75 feet. The batters
previously interfered with deep-draft
RETIREMENT certificates were pre-
sented at the end of August to the
employees listed below, with their posi-
tions at time of retirement and years
of Canal service:
James F. Burgoon, Laundry and Dry Clean-
ing Plant Superintendent, Supply Divi-
sion; 24 years, 4 months, 15 days.
James H. Burns, Chief Engineer, Towboat
or Ferry, Navigation Division; 21 years,
4 months, 21 days.
Antonio Canizales, Leader Heavy Laborer,
Navigation Division; 32 years, 5 months,
Percy Cobham, Leader Dock Stevedore,
Terminals Division; 47 years, 2 months
Allan Daniels, Shipment Clerk, Railroad
Division; 37 years, 8 months, 15 days.
Mrs. Frances F. Fears, Elementary and
Secondary School Teacher, Division of
Schools; 11 years, 10 months, 21 days.
Walter N. Grant, Deckhand, Supply Divi-
sion; 41 years, 3 months, 3 days.
Miss Dorothy M. Hall, Secretary Stenog-
rapher, Dredging Division; 28 years,
William D. Hardie, Supervisory Manage-
ment Technician, Administrative Branch;
32 years, 9 months, 12 days.
Joseph P. Hawthorne, Towing Locomotive
Operator, Locks Division; 28 years,
6 months, 28 days.
Mesias P. Lewis, Laborer Cleaner, Motor
Transporation Division; 21 years, 2
months, 11 days.
Watkin H. Lindsay, Bookbinder, Printing
Plant, Administrative Branch; 39 years,
1 month, 11 days.
Harry J. Linker, Shift Engineer, Electrical
Division; 22 years, 1 month, 20 days.
Roberto Martinez, Utility Worker, Supply
Division; 19 years, 1 month, 26 days.
Francisco Martinez R., Heavy Laborer,
Communitv Services Division; 20 years,
William B. Newball, Stevedore, Terminals
Division; 4 years, 4 months, 7 days.
Mrs. Nye C. Norris, Personnel Clerk,
Employee and Placement Branch; 18
years, 10 monhs.
Ferdinand L. Ottey, Chauffeur, Motor
Transportation Division; 47 years, 6
Juan Padilla, Laborer, Community Service
Division; 13 years, 10 months, 1 day.
Hubert S. Robinson, Stockman, Supply
Division; 35 years, 3 months, 25 days.
Frederick C. Rose, Chief Engineer, Tow-
boat or Ferry, Navigation Division; 32
years, 3 months, 13 days.
Jagat Singh, Stevedore, Terminals Division;
31 years, 2 months, 20 days.
Eduardo A. Soto, Clerk, Railroad Division;
25 years, 5 months, 17 days.
Beresford S. Tompson, Sales Clerk, Supply
Division; 33 years, 9 months, 13 days.
Walter Wagner, Chief Power System Dis-
patcher, Electrical Division; 25 years,
6 months, 22 days.
James E. Walker, Foreman, Transmission
Lines, Electrical Division; 21 years, 10
months, 12 davs.
The Panama Canal Review
Trailer Ship Service
A NEW TYPE of cargo ship, carrying
cargo loaded in 35-foot trailers, passed
through the Canal during September on
its maiden voyage inaugurating a new
intercoastal trailer service. The ship
was the U.S. flag SS Elizabeth/port
which was en route from New Jersey
to Los Angeles and San Francisco. The
voyage was to take 14 days. The
Elizabethport will make regular trips
through the Panama Canal on her inter-
coastal lim and soon will be joined by
a sistership, the San Juan.
Her owners, Sea-Land Service, Inc.,
have announced that by the end of this
\ car there will be four jumbo trailer-
ships on this service. The trailers carry-
ing the cargo are loaded and unloaded
by huge gantrv cranes which are part
of each vessel's superstructure. A trailer
can be unloaded and replaced by
a new one in an average of 4 minutes.
Andrews & Co. act as agents for the line
at the Canal.
TRANSITS BY OCEAN-GOING
VESSELS IN AUGUST
Commercial 934 950
U.S. Government 25 16
Free 6 6
Total 965 972
Commercial $4,751,586 $4,929,238
U.S. Government. 117,107 79,713
Total... $4,868,693 $5,008,951
Commercial . . . 5,664,080 5,168,760
U.S. Government. 159,618 91,809
Free 21,756 47.547
Total... 5,845,454 5,308,116
'Includes tolls on all vessels, ocean-going and small.
"Cargo figures are in long tons
THE SHIP Safety Achievement Citation
of Merit, awarded jointly by the Marine
Section of the American National Safetv
Sea-going hopper dredge due in January.
Council and the American Merchant
Marine Institute, was presented to the
States Marine Line cargo ship Beaver
State recently. The award was in recog-
nition of the part taken by the officers
and members of the crew in the rescue
of survivers of the ill-fated Pacific
Seafarer January 15, 1961. The rescue
was made at sea about 15 miles north
of Cristobal under difficult weather con-
ditions. The Beaver State is a regular
customer of the Panama Canal.
New Maersk Liner
THE LATEST addition to the blue-
hulled Maersk fleet made its maiden
voyage through the Canal recently. It
was the MS Thomas Maersk, built in
Denmark for the New York to U.S.
west coast and Far East trade. The
modern air-conditioned cargo liner has
been built to cater to all types of special
cargo and is equipped with such things
as strong rooms, silk rooms, reefer
chambers, and deep tanks for storage of
vegetable oil, liquid latex, and molasses.
C. B. Fenton & Co., agents for the
Maersk Line here, announced that
the ship will join the Line's list of
regular Canal customers and has
accommodations for 12 passengers.
THE PANAMA CANAL'S Dredging
Division will get an assist during the
coming dry season from the sea-going
hopper dredge Harding, which will be
sent to the Isthmus in January by the
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
The dredge will work in Gaillard Cut
for approximately 3 months to assist
Dredging Division forces in the clear-
ing of material which was part of the
cut-widening work in that area.
Built bv the Corps of Engineers in
1939, the Harding is named for former
Canal Zone Governor Chester Harding,
who followed Governor George W.
Goethals as Governor and served here
from 1917 to 1921. It is 308.2 feet in
length, has a beam of 56 feet, and a
capacity of 2,500 cubic yards.
October 5, 1962
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UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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